Language Teaching Through Literature

Some of the early names include and , who wrote the national anthem (). Early poetry often deal with the , and it is only in the 1930s that poetry reaches a significant literary standard. is the vanguard of the new movement, called , along with his brother , and , although they were all to write in future literary periods. Olivier notes Van Wyk Louw's predominance: "It was only in the Thirties that a fully developed theory about Afrikaans as a national literature was launched by the erudite poet, N. P. van Wyk Louw, in his two collections of essays (1939) and (1939)". Van Wyk Louw introduced international literary theories and movements into the South African literary scene on a much larger scale than any of his predecessors, and his "theory provided the intellectual and philosophical space within which poets and novelists could exercise their craft without fear of transgression; in short, it became the paradigm for Afrikaans literature" (Olivier). started writing in the 1940s, and was to have a particularly prominent role with his anthology, . The next major paradigm shift came in the 1960s, with and , who, after her death, attained cult status. Cloete et al. discuss this literary watershed in . T. T. Cloete is further noteworthy for his compilation, (1992), which is one of the most encompassing works on literary theory available on the global market, although written in Afrikaans. Some modern poets of note include , , , and . is regarded by many as one of the best, if not the best, Afrikaans poet. He spent a number of years in prison for his political beliefs during apartheid and later lived in France. Breytenbach's latest work, "Die windvanger" was published in 2007. The major poetry anthologies are DJ Opperman's , Foster and Viljoen's , Gerrit Komrij's controversial Die , and André P. Brink's , a remake or reworking of Opperman's anthology.

African Literature Essay - Essay database online. Find free Essays…

Stress Management Literature Review Free Essays

The Library of the World’s Best Literature

One striking fact about English literature during the presentcentury is the extent to which it has been dominated byforeigners–for example, Conrad, Henry James, Shaw, Joyce,Yeats, Pound and Eliot. Still, if you chose to make this a matterof national prestige and examine our achievement in the variousbranches of literature, you would find that England made a fairlygood showing until you came to what may be roughly described aspolitical writing, or pamphleteering. I mean by this the specialclass of literature that has arisen out of the European politicalstruggle since the rise of Fascism. Under this heading novels,autobiographies, books of "reportage", sociological treatises andplain pamphlets can all be lumped together, all of them having acommon origin and to a great extent the same emotionalatmosphere.

FREE African Literature Essay - Example Essays

The application of this to the radio is obvious. At present theloudspeaker is the enemy of the creative writer, but this may notnecessarily remain true when the volume and scope of broadcastingincrease. As things are, although the BBC does keep up a feebleshow of interest in contemporary literature, it is harder tocapture five minutes on the air in which to broadcast a poem thantwelve hours in which to disseminate lying propaganda, tinnedmusic, stale jokes, faked "discussions" or what-have-you. But thatstate of affairs may alter in the way I have indicated, and whenthat time comes serious experiment in the broadcasting of verse,with complete disregard for the various hostile influences whichprevent any such thing at present, would become possible. I don'tclaim it as certain that such an experiment would have very greatresults. The radio was bureaucratised so early in its career thatthe relationship between broadcasting and literature has never beenthought out. It is not certain that the microphone is theinstrument by which poetry could be brought back to the commonpeople and it is not even certain that poetry would gain by beingmore of a spoken and less of a written thing. But I do urge thatthese possibilities exist, and that those who care for literaturemight turn their minds more often to this much-despised medium,whose powers for good have perhaps been obscured by the voices ofProfessor Joad and Doctor Goebbels.

New York. I have gained an idea about the process of literature review and the structure that has to be followed.
O Decolonizing the Mind. Decolonising the Mind. Review The Politics of Language in African Literature. Ngugi decolonizing mind pdf the Mind.

Anthologies Warner, Charles D., ed

One of the essential experiences of war is never being able toescape from disgusting smells of human origin. Latrines are anoverworked subject in war literature, and I would not mention themif it were not that the latrine in our barracks did its necessarybit towards puncturing my own illusions about the Spanish civilwar. The Latin type of latrine, at which you have to squat, is badenough at its best, but these were made of some kind of polishedstone so slippery that it was all you could do to keep on yourfeet. In addition they were always blocked. Now I have plenty ofother disgusting things in my memory, but I believe it was theselatrines that first brought home to me the thought, so often torecur: 'Here we are, soldiers of a revolutionary army, defendingDemocracy against Fascism, fighting a war which is ABOUT something,and the detail of our lives is just as sordid and degrading as itcould be in prison, let alone in a bourgeois army.' Many otherthings reinforced this impression later; for instance, the boredomand animal hunger of trench life, the squalid intrigues over scrapsof food, the mean, nagging quarrels which people exhausted by lackof sleep indulge in.

The Politics of Language in African Literature; The essays collected in this volume were previously presented and published elsewhere - Return to top of the page -

Fifty Orwell Essays, by George Orwell, free ebook

(v) PACIFISM. The majority of pacifists either belong to obscurereligious sects or are simply humanitarians who object to thetaking of life and prefer not to follow their thoughts beyond thatpoint. But there is a minority of intellectual pacifists whose realthough unadmitted motive appears to be hatred of western democracyand admiration of totalitarianism. Pacifist propaganda usuallyboils down to saying that one side is as bad as the other, but ifone looks closely at the writings of younger intellectualpacifists, one finds that they do not by any means expressimpartial disapproval but are directed almost entirely againstBritain and the United States. Moreover they do not as a rulecondemn violence as such, but only violence used in defence ofwestern countries. The Russians, unlike the British, are not blamedfor defending themselves by warlike means, and indeed all pacifistpropaganda of this type avoids mention of Russia or China. It isnot claimed, again, that the Indians should abjure violence intheir struggle against the British. Pacifist literature aboundswith equivocal remarks which, if they mean anything, appear to meanthat statesmen of the type of Hitler are preferable to those of thetype of Churchill, and that violence is perhaps excusable if it isviolent enough. After the fall of France, the French pacifists,faced by a real choice which their English colleagues have not hadto make, mostly went over to the Nazis, and in England thereappears to have been some small overlap of membership between thePeace Pledge Union and the Blackshirts. Pacifist writers havewritten in praise of Carlyle, one of the intellectual fathers ofFascism. All in all it is difficult not to feel that pacifism, asit appears among a section of the intelligentsia, is secretlyinspired by an admiration for power and successful cruelty. Themistake was made of pinning this emotion to Hitler, but it couldeasily be retransferred.

The Art of Literature (Encyclopaedia Britannica article) Definitions of the word literature tend to be circular

Search Essays -- Free Essays and Term Papers

To keep the matter in perspective, let me repeat what I said atthe beginning of this essay: that in England the immediate enemiesof truthfulness, and hence of freedom of thought, are the presslords, the film magnates, and the bureaucrats, but that on a longview the weakening of the desire for liberty among theintellectuals themselves is the most serious symptom of all. It mayseem that all this time I have been talking about the effects ofcensorship, not on literature as a whole, but merely on onedepartment of political journalism. Granted that Soviet Russiaconstitutes a sort of forbidden area in the British press, grantedthat issues like Poland, the Spanish civil war, the Russo-Germanpact, and so forth, are debarred from serious discussion, and thatif you possess information that conflicts with the prevailingorthodoxy you are expected to either distort it or keep quiet aboutit–granted all this, why should literature in the wider sensebe affected? Is every writer a politician, and is every booknecessarily a work of straightforward "reportage"? Even under thetightest dictatorship, cannot the individual writer remain freeinside his own mind and distill or disguise his unorthodox ideas insuch a way that the authorities will be too stupid to recognizethem? And in any case, if the writer himself is in agreement withthe prevailing orthodoxy, why should it have a cramping effect onhim? Is not literature, or any of the arts, likeliest to flourishin societies in which there are no major conflicts of opinion andno sharp distinction between the artist and his audience? Does onehave to assume that every writer is a rebel, or even that a writeras such is an exceptional person?